Deploying or Redeploying a Greenplum Cluster

This section describes how to use the Greenplum Operator deploy a Greenplum cluster to your Kubernetes system. You can use these instructions either to deploy a brand new cluster (provisioning new, empty Persistent Volume Claims in Kubernetes), or to re-deploy an earlier cluster, re-using existing Persistent Volumes if available.

Prerequisites

This procedure requires that you first install the Pivotal Greenplum docker images and create the Greenplum Operator in your Kubernetes system. See Installing Pivotal Greenplum for Kubernetes for more information.

Verify that the Greenplum Operator is installed and running in your system before you continue:

$ helm list
NAME                NAMESPACE   REVISION    UPDATED                                 STATUS      CHART           APP VERSION  
greenplum-operator  default     1           2020-05-13 11:17:30.640971495 -0700 PDT deployed    operator-1.4.0  v2.0.0

To deploy multiple Greenplum cluster instances, you require multiple namespaces in your Kubernetes environment to target each cluster. If you need to create a new Kubernetes namespace, use the kubectl create namespace command. For example:

$ kubectl create namespace gpinstance-1
namespace/gpinstance-1 created

Verify that you have a namespace for the new Greenplum cluster instances that you want to deploy. For example:

$ kubectl get namespaces
NAME          STATUS    AGE
default       Active    50d
gpinstance-1  Active    50d 
gpinstance-2  Active    50d 
kube-public   Active    50d
kube-system   Active    50d

In the above output, gpinstance-1 and gpinstance-2 can be used as namespaces for deploying two different Greenplum cluster.

Procedure

  1. Go to the workspace subdirectory where you unpacked the Pivotal Greenplum distribution for Kubernetes:

    $ cd ./greenplum-for-kubernetes-*/workspace
    
  2. If necessary, create a Kubernetes manifest file to specify the configuration of your Greenplum cluster. A sample file is provided in workspace/my-gp-instance.yaml. my-gp-instance.yaml contains the minimal set of instructions necessary to create a demonstration cluster named “my-greenplum” with a single segment and default storage, memory, and CPU settings:

    apiVersion: "greenplum.pivotal.io/v1"
    kind: "GreenplumCluster"
    metadata:
      name: my-greenplum
    spec:
      masterAndStandby:
        hostBasedAuthentication: |
          # host   all   gpadmin   0.0.0.0/0    trust
        memory: "800Mi"
        cpu: "0.5"
        storageClassName: standard
        storage: 1G
        workerSelector: {}
      segments:
        primarySegmentCount: 1
        memory: "800Mi"
        cpu: "0.5"
        storageClassName: standard
        storage: 2G
        workerSelector: {}
    
    

    Most non-trivial clusters will require configuration changes to specify additional segments, cpu, memory, pg_hba.conf entries, and Storage Class resources. See Greenplum Database Properties for information about these configuration parameters and change them as necessary before you continue.


    If you want to re-deploy a Greenplum cluster that you previously deployed, simply locate and use the existing configuration file.


    If you want to deploy another Greenplum cluster (in a separate Kubernetes namespace), copy the workspace/my-gp-instance.yaml or a another deployment manifest file, and edit it as necessary to meet your cluster configuration requirements.

    Pivotal Greenplum for Kubernetes provides three additional sample manifest files that you can use as templates (copy to the /workspace directory before modifying):

    • samples/my-gp-with-pxf-instance.yaml contains the minimal configuration for a cluster that includes the Platform Extension Framework (PXF) deployed. PXF provides connectors that enable you to access data stored in sources external to your Greenplum Database deployment. These external sources include Hadoop (HDFS, Hive, HBase), object stores (Azure, Google Cloud Storage, Minio, S3), and SQL databases (via JDBC). See Deploying PXF with Greenplum for more information about deploying PXF with Pivotal Greenplum.
    • samples/my-gp-with-gptext-instance.yaml contains the minimal configuration for a cluster that includes GPText. GPText joins the Greenplum Database massively parallel-processing database server with Apache SolrCloud enterprise search and the Apache MADlib Analytics Library to provide large-scale analytics processing and business decision support. GPText includes free text search as well as support for text analysis. See Deploying GPText with Greenplum (Beta) for more information about deploying GPText with Pivotal Greenplum.
    • samples/my-gp-with-pl-instance.yaml contains the minimal configuration for a cluster that includes PL/Container. The PL/Container language extension enables users to create and run PL/R user-defined functions (UDFs) securely, inside a Kubernetes pod. See Deploying GPText with PL/Container for more information about deploying PL/Container with Pivotal Greenplum.
  3. (Optional) If you have specified workerSelector in your manifest file, then you need to apply the specified labels to the nodes that belong in the masterAndStandby and segments pools by using the following command:

    $ kubectl label node <node name> <key>=<value>
    
  4. Use kubectl apply command and specify your manifest file to send the deployment request to the Greenplum Operator. For example, to use the sample my-gp-instance.yaml file:

    $ kubectl apply -f ./my-gp-instance.yaml 
    
    greenplumcluster.greenplum.pivotal.io/my-greenplum created
    

    If you are deploying another instance of a Greenplum cluster, specify the Kubernetes namespace where you want to deploy the new cluster. For example, if you previously deployed a cluster in the namespace gpinstance-1, you could deploy a second Greenplum cluster in the gpinstance-2 namespace using the command:

    $ kubectl apply -f ./my-gp-instance.yaml -n gpinstance-2
    
    greenplumcluster.greenplum.pivotal.io/my-greenplum created
    

    The Greenplum Operator deploys the necessary Greenplum resources according to your specification, and also initializes the Greenplum cluster. If there are no existing Persistent Volume Claims for the cluster, new PVCs are created and used for the deployment. If PVCs for the cluster already exist, they are used as-is with the available data.


    Deploying the cluster also creates a new service account named greenplum-system-pod. Greenplum pods use this account internally to label their persistent volume claims (PVCs), but it is also visible if you use the kubectl get serviceaccount command:

    $ kubectl get serviceaccount
    
    NAME                        SECRETS   AGE
    default                     1         39m
    greenplum-system-operator   1         36m
    greenplum-system-pod        1         18m
    


    If you enabled antiAffinity in your cluster configuration, individual nodes are labeled with greenplum-affinity-<namespace>-segment=a, greenplum-affinity-<namespace>-segment=b, and/or greenplum-affinity-<namespace>-master=true, as shown below:

    $ kubectl get nodes --show-labels
    NAME                                      STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION   LABELS
    vm-4b50d90e-5e00-411f-5516-588711f0a618   Ready    <none>   11h   v1.16.7   beta.kubernetes.io/arch=amd64,beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=custom-1-2048,beta.kubernetes.io/os=linux,bosh.id=3b3a6b47-8a1d-4a82-a06b-5349a241397e,bosh.zone=us-central1-f,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-f,greenplum-affinity-default-master=true,greenplum-affinity-default-segment=a,kubernetes.io/hostname=vm-4b50d90e-5e00-411f-5516-588711f0a618,spec.ip=10.0.11.11,worker=my-gp-masters
    vm-50da037c-0c00-46f8-5968-2a51cf17e426   Ready    <none>   11h   v1.16.7   beta.kubernetes.io/arch=amd64,beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=custom-1-2048,beta.kubernetes.io/os=linux,bosh.id=e6440a8d-8b75-4a0e-acc9-b210e81d59dc,bosh.zone=us-central1-f,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-f,greenplum-affinity-default-master=true,greenplum-affinity-default-segment=b,kubernetes.io/hostname=vm-50da037c-0c00-46f8-5968-2a51cf17e426,spec.ip=10.0.11.16,worker=my-gp-masters
    vm-73e119aa-da79-4686-58df-1e9d7a9eff18   Ready    <none>   11h   v1.16.7   beta.kubernetes.io/arch=amd64,beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=custom-1-2048,beta.kubernetes.io/os=linux,bosh.id=7e68ad80-6401-431b-8187-0ffc9c45dd69,bosh.zone=us-central1-f,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-f,greenplum-affinity-default-master=true,greenplum-affinity-default-segment=a,kubernetes.io/hostname=vm-73e119aa-da79-4686-58df-1e9d7a9eff18,spec.ip=10.0.11.15,worker=my-gp-segments
    vm-8e43e0c6-6fd5-4bff-5c3a-150cbca76781   Ready    <none>   11h   v1.16.7   beta.kubernetes.io/arch=amd64,beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=custom-1-2048,beta.kubernetes.io/os=linux,bosh.id=2bfd5222-96c5-47d7-98c2-52af11ea3854,bosh.zone=us-central1-f,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-f,greenplum-affinity-default-master=true,greenplum-affinity-default-segment=b,kubernetes.io/hostname=vm-8e43e0c6-6fd5-4bff-5c3a-150cbca76781,spec.ip=10.0.11.13,worker=my-gp-segments
    vm-cf9fcef9-2557-43ca-43fa-01b21618e9ba   Ready    <none>   11h   v1.16.7   beta.kubernetes.io/arch=amd64,beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=custom-1-2048,beta.kubernetes.io/os=linux,bosh.id=5a757d0f-d312-4fee-9c3f-52bd82c225f7,bosh.zone=us-central1-f,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-f,greenplum-affinity-default-master=true,greenplum-affinity-default-segment=a,kubernetes.io/hostname=vm-cf9fcef9-2557-43ca-43fa-01b21618e9ba,spec.ip=10.0.11.14,worker=my-gp-segments
    vm-fb806a3c-8198-4608-671e-4659c940d2a4   Ready    <none>   11h   v1.16.7   beta.kubernetes.io/arch=amd64,beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=custom-1-2048,beta.kubernetes.io/os=linux,bosh.id=18f8435d-be48-4445-b822-e0733ac7eced,bosh.zone=us-central1-f,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-f,greenplum-affinity-default-master=true,greenplum-affinity-default-segment=b,kubernetes.io/hostname=vm-fb806a3c-8198-4608-671e-4659c940d2a4,spec.ip=10.0.11.12,worker=my-gp-segments
    


    Do not modify these labels, as they are used by the Operator for enforcing the antiAffinity setting.

  5. While the cluster is initializing the status will be Pending:

    $ watch kubectl get all
    
    NAME                                      READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    pod/greenplum-operator-6ff95b6b79-kq9vr   1/1     Running   0          20m
    pod/master-0                              1/1     Running   0          2m47s
    pod/segment-a-0                           1/1     Running   0          2m47s
    
    NAME                                                            TYPE           CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)          AGE
    service/agent                                                   ClusterIP      None             <none>        22/TCP           2m48s
    service/greenplum                                               LoadBalancer   10.102.131.136   <pending>     5432:32753/TCP   2m48s
    service/greenplum-validating-webhook-service-6ff95b6b79-kq9vr   ClusterIP      10.106.60.103    <none>        443/TCP          20m
    service/kubernetes                                              ClusterIP      10.96.0.1        <none>        443/TCP          24m
    
    NAME                                 READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    deployment.apps/greenplum-operator   1/1     1            1           20m
    
    NAME                                            DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
    replicaset.apps/greenplum-operator-6ff95b6b79   1         1         1       20m
    
    NAME                         READY   AGE
    statefulset.apps/master      1/1     2m47s
    statefulset.apps/segment-a   1/1     2m47s
    
    NAME                                                 STATUS    AGE
    greenplumcluster.greenplum.pivotal.io/my-greenplum   Running   2m49s
    
  6. If you are redeploying a cluster that was configured to use a standby master, wait until all pods reach the Running status. Then connect to the master-0 pod and execute the gpstart command manually. For example:

    kubectl exec -it master-0 -- bash -c "source /usr/local/greenplum-db/greenplum_path.sh; gpstart"
    
  7. Describe your Greenplum cluster to verify that it was created successfully. The Phase should eventually transition to Running:

    $ kubectl describe greenplumClusters/my-greenplum
    
    Name:         my-greenplum
    Namespace:    default
    Labels:       <none>
    Annotations:  API Version:  greenplum.pivotal.io/v1
    Kind:         GreenplumCluster
    Metadata:
      Creation Timestamp:  2020-05-13T18:34:54Z
      Finalizers:
        stopcluster.greenplumcluster.pivotal.io
      Generation:        3
      Resource Version:  2196
      Self Link:         /apis/greenplum.pivotal.io/v1/namespaces/default/greenplumclusters/my-greenplum
      UID:               247daddf-b7e3-4479-a175-8c03e53f910f
    Spec:
      Master And Standby:
        Cpu:                        0.5
        Host Based Authentication:  # host   all   gpadmin   0.0.0.0/0   trust
    
        Memory:              800Mi
        Storage:             1G
        Storage Class Name:  standard
        Worker Selector:
      Segments:
        Cpu:                    0.5
        Memory:                 800Mi
        Primary Segment Count:  1
        Storage:                2G
        Storage Class Name:     standard
        Worker Selector:
    Status:
      Instance Image:    greenplum-for-kubernetes:v2.0.0
      Operator Version:  greenplum-operator:v2.0.0
      Phase:             Running
    Events:              <none>
    

    If you are deploying a brand new cluster, the Greenplum Operator automatically initializes the Greenplum cluster. The Phase should eventually transition from Pending to Running and the Events should match the output above.


    Note: If you redeployed a previously-deployed Greenplum cluster, the phase will begin at Pending. The cluster uses its existing Persistent Volume Claims if they are available. In this case, the master and segment data directories will already exist in their former state. The master-0 pod automatically starts the Greenplum Cluster, after which the phase transitions to Running.

  8. At this point, you can work with the deployed Greenplum cluster by executing Greenplum utilities from within Kubernetes, or by using a locally-installed tool, such as psql, to access the Greenplum instance running in Kubernetes. For example, to run the psql utility on the master-0 pod:

    $ kubectl exec -it master-0 -- bash -c "source /usr/local/greenplum-db/greenplum_path.sh; psql"
    
    psql (9.4.24)
    Type "help" for help.
    
    gpadmin=# select * from gp_segment_configuration;
    
     dbid | content | role | preferred_role | mode | status | port  |  hostname   |                   address                   |  
        datadir      
    ------+---------+------+----------------+------+--------+-------+-------------+---------------------------------------------+--
    -----------------
        1 |      -1 | p    | p              | n    | u      |  5432 | master-0    | master-0.agent.default.svc.cluster.local    | /
    greenplum/data-1
        2 |       0 | p    | p              | n    | u      | 40000 | segment-a-0 | segment-a-0.agent.default.svc.cluster.local | /
    greenplum/data
    (2 rows)
    

    (Enter \q to exit the psql utility.)

    See also Accessing a Greenplum Cluster in Kubernetes.